From Quasars to Black Holes
by Rich Anders
The universe originated in the Big Bang. Hydrogen and helium were
created and provided the basis for further evolution of matter. The
force of the explosion distributed the new matter evenly as it
expanded and, thereby, created space. This was the first phase of
creation, which cannot be seen with even the most powerful tools of
astronomical observation. It only can be measured as "the back
ground noise" coming to us evenly from all directions. Going
back in time an estimated 15 billion of years this newly formed
matter constitutes the edge of the universe.
Quasars are the most distant objects astronomic observation
clearly shows. These are small cosmic objects, which emit as much or
more energy than entire galaxies. The energy output of quasars
cannot be explained in terms of nuclear processes. Only something
vastly more powerful can account for this energy phenomenon.
There is no reason backed by physics that quasars actually can
form. Primal matter is distributed evenly. Therefore, there are no
local centers of gravity that would cause an accumulation of so much
primal matter, hydrogen and helium, which could ignite nuclear
processes. Also, aside from the output of immense amounts of energy
quasars continuously produce huge amounts of hydrogen and helium.
This process continues in young galaxies, which have a continuous
stream of hydrogen and helium coming out of their centers.
The primal production of hydrogen and helium happened as a
consequence of positive spiritual energies meeting negative
spiritual energies triggering the Big Bang. For this universe this
was a one-time event. If quasars and young galaxies produce immense
amounts of hydrogen and helium this is an indication that the same
forces, which caused the Big Bang, are at work. The big difference
is that in the case of the quasars and the young galaxies this
process is continuous.
Energies meeting energies of opposite charge explain the immense
amount of energy created in quasars and in the centers of young
galaxies. This is a continuous creational explosion that can only be
caused by an input of positive energies. Therefore, one can assume
that the energy system of quasars ignited because of the input of
positive spiritual energies at specific locations in the new space,
which had been created by expanding hydrogen and helium.
Creating quasars presupposes intention. It is not conceivable
that haphazardly all over the newly created space quasars sprang up
all by themselves. This shows that a grand plan has been implemented
from the very beginning of the universe by an intelligence so vast,
powerful and strange to us that we cannot even guess its nature. We
only can assume that the totality of the positive energies, the
positive principle, has intelligence and a plan. It executes this
plan by attacking the negative spiritual energies, gravity, thereby
fusing these two kinds of energies in a creative continued explosion
as witnessed in quasars and in the centers of young galaxies. The
Big Bang was the first phase of creation. The continued creative
explosions in quasars and in the centers of young galaxies are the
Supernovae are explosions of collapsed stars. There is parallel
between the explosion of the singularity, the Big Bang, and
supernova explosions. In either case hydrogen and helium are
created. Consequently, if these gases are produced by supernova
explosions one must assume that in both types of events the same
forces are at work. Hence, supernovae are repetitions of the Big
Bang on a small scale: a star collapses and then explodes. The
universe before collapsed and then exploded. In both cases new
matter is created. Supernovae are the third phase of creation.
In view of the above it is clear that the universes mass can not be
calculated even approximately. There is no way to establish how much
matter was created in supernova explosions or in galactic centers.
By the time radiation from supernovae or distant galaxies takes to
reach us, innumerable "creative one-time or continuous
explosions" can have taken place throughout the universe.
Therefore, calculating the universes mass and weight from presently
available data is a futile effort when one wishes to determine
whether the universe has enough mass to eventually collapse under
the stress of its own weight. - Even if such data were available it
would not mean anything as a universe's collapse does not depend on
its weight but on the interdependence of electromagnetism and
Explosions of smaller stars create lighter elements. Explosions
of larger stars create gases and heavier elements. Together these
elements provide matter, which constitutes planets. Planets are the
fourth phase of creation. They experience an evolution of inorganic
matter up to the point that organic matter, the basis of life, can
develop. Once this stage is reached on planets, which have the
necessary preconditions, the evolution of life forms takes place
eventually peaking in intelligent beings.
A universe's fate is decided at its very beginning before it
reaches Plank time. In this infinitely small period of time pairs of
matter-antimatter particles are created, which annihilate each other
setting free the immense amounts of energy accompanying creative
explosions. Out of approximately one hundred thousand such pairs one
negative particle survives. From these survivors this universe
formed. As it is made up of negative particles it exists in a
negative material dimension.
All matter in a negative material dimension has purely negative
spiritual energies attached, which carry the pattern of
gravity. Everything negative is subjected to the negative principle,
which is the principle of destruction. Hence, the universe from its
very beginning is destined to be destroyed by the force of gravity.
All life forms consist of negative matter, as well. But the
evolution of spirit allows the coexistence of positive and negative
spiritual energies attached to a life form. From the very beginning
of life the two principles of the universe compete for these
spiritual energies, as these have the potential to strengthen the
principle they belong to, positive or negative.
Over eons of time life forms evolve and it is up to them which
direction they take. If on a planet life forms with predominantly
negative spiritual energies evolve this planet remains in a negative
dimension. If on a planet life forms with predominantly positive
spiritual energies evolve this planet's matter eventually has the
spiritual energy behind its matter changed to positive.
The duality of the principles of the universe is a continuous
struggle, which we know as the fight of good versus evil.
Contributing positive or negative spiritual energies every living
being is involved in this fight and, thereby, helps to determine its
outcome. The positive principle creates and maintains the created.
The negative principle strives to restore the starting point of the
universe, which was the material nothing. The universe is
predestined for ultimate destruction but this destiny can be changed
if enough positive spiritual energies are contributed by all the
life forms in the universe to tip the scale in favor of the positive
After this excursion into the realm of the quantum vacuum, the
realm of spirituality, let's deal with matter's evolution from
quasars to black holes. Quasars form the centers of proto-galaxies.
From then on the evolution goes to young galaxies, to old galaxies
and, lastly, to black holes.
The intermediary stages of matter's evolution and life cycle
leading up to its end in a black hole reflect the process of the
universe's aging. Young galaxies produce tremendous amounts of
energy and new matter in their galactic centers supporting thereby
formation of new stars and providing energy for existing stars. The
energy output of old galaxies has stopped. The energies and new
matter necessary for star formation are added no more to an old
galaxy. As a galaxy gets older its energy potential is used up.
Ultimately the stage is reached that it cannot supply sufficient
energy to its stars and star systems and the stars decay. The end of
matter is reached when a star collapses and a black hole forms.
There are three results of stars collapsing:
- A massive star collapses and this triggers a supernova
- A massive star collapses triggering a supernova explosion and
leaving a neutron star behind.
- A massive star collapses and a black hole is formed.
The difference in these events is not the collapse but the result
of the collapse. The supernova explosion is the result of the star's
collapsing matter being re-vitalized by the input of positive
spiritual energies in the moment the collapsing star turns into a
mini singularity. This results in an explosion of the Big Bang type
only on a much smaller scale. Consequently, hydrogen and helium are
created like in the original Big Bang.
A supernova leaving a neutron star behind indicates that there
was not enough positive spiritual energy available to trigger a
complete "Big Bang" type explosion. Part of the collapsing
matter was blown off in a supernova explosion. The rest remained on
location as super dense matter because the remaining energy was not
able to sustain normal matter any more. A neutron star is radiating
off this remaining energy possibly seen as a pulsar. When the point
is reached that the star's energy cannot sustain any longer even the
reduced matter state star it collapses. The remaining energy is set
free in a very strong flash of energy and the star's matter
collapses into it's center of gravity forming a mini singularity,
which maintains all the star's gravity. A black hole is born.
The collapse of a massive star into a black hole indicates that
there was no energy to revitalize the collapsed star's matter. The
star's energy was set free in a flash and as matter was not
sustained any more it collapsed out of the state of matter into the
center of its gravity as pure gravitational energy of the quantum
vacuum forming a local mini singularity.
There is a big difference between the singularity preceding the
Big Bang and the singularity in the center of a black hole. The
singularity preceding the Big Bang existed only for a timeless
moment until the input of positive spiritual energies triggered the
The singularity inside a black hole is permanent until it
collapses into a bigger singularity and ultimately into the Big Bang
singularity. Like a spider in its nets it sits at the center of
gravity attracting all matter within its reach and crushing it out
of existence. The more matter it crushes the stronger it gets.
The only obvious feature of a black hole is its accretion disk,
which radiates immense amounts of energies. Matter swirls around the
black hole ever faster in ever tighter circles until it reaches the
point where its energy is squeezed out by gravity's pressure and
radiated off. As energy leaves matter ceases to exist as such and
its energy behind matter, its spiritual or quantum vacuum energy,
instantly joins the singularity in the center of the black hole and
increases its gravitational pull.
Over time more and more black holes form in a dying galaxy. Its
center becomes a gigantic black hole. When energy in the galaxy has
dwindled to the point that the remaining matter cannot be sustained
any more all energy of this galaxy is released in a flash and all
the galaxy's matter collapses out of existence joining the
singularity in the center of the galaxy.
Recent astronomical observations show segments of the universe
from where no light is emanating. The distribution of matter in the
universe should be the same all over. Approximately the same amount
of matter should be found in all segments. But it isn't. This leads
to the assumption that there are indeed entire sections of the
universe where all matter has collapsed out of existence - and
nobody knows how many living galaxies it takes to maintain the
There is no way to know where the universe stands. The light
arriving at our telescopes has been on its way for a long time and
anything could have happened at its point of departure in sometimes
millions of years it has been on its way. Could have so many
galaxies already collapsed that a collapse of the entire universe is
imminent? - There is no way to know.
Copyright Rich Anders, December 2002