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Articles by Martin Gray
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by Martin Gray
According to our present knowledge the Great Pyramid is mostly solid
mass, its only known interior spaces being the Descending passage (the
original entrance), the Ascending passage, the Grand Gallery, a mysterious
grotto, an equally mysterious subterranean chamber, and the two main
chambers. These two chambers, called the King's Chamber and the Queen's
Chamber, have unfortunately retained the misleading names given to them by
early Arab visitors to the pyramid.
The foolishness of the common assumption, that the Giza plateau
pyramids were built and utilized by fourth Dynasty kings as funerary
structures, cannot be overstated. It is a matter of archaeological fact
that none of the fourth Dynasty kings put their names on the pyramids
supposedly constructed in their times, yet from the fifth Dynasty onwards,
the other pyramids had hundreds of official inscriptions, leaving us no
doubt about which kings built them. The mathematical complexity,
engineering requirements, and sheer size of the Giza plateau pyramids
represent an enormous, seemingly impossible leap in abilities over the
third dynasty buildings. Contemporary Egyptological explanation cannot
account for this leap, nor can they account for the clear decline in
mathematics, engineering and size of the constructions of the fifth
dynasty. Textbooks speak of "religious upheaval" and "civil wars," but
there is no evidence whatsoever of these having occurred.
The attribution to Khufu of the Great Pyramid is founded soley upon three very circumstantial pieces of "evidence":
Pharaoh Khufu himself left no indication whatsoever that he built the
Great Pyramid. He did, however, claim to have done repair work on the
structure. On the nearby "Inventory" Stele (dating to about 1500 BC, but
showing evidence of having been copied from a far older stele
contemporaneous with the fourth dynasty), Khufu tells of discoveries made
while clearing away the sands from the pyramid, of his dedication of the
monument to Isis, and of his building of the three small pyramids for
himself, his wife, and his daughters next to the Great Pyramid. Regarding
the chalk marks found within the pyramid, most hieroglyph experts now
believe these to be forgeries left by their "discoverer" Richard Howard-Vyse,
rather than being quarry inscriptions left by the original builders.
Howard-Vyse was under pressure to equal the discoveries of his rival, the
Italian explorer Caviglia, who had found inscriptions in some of the tombs
around the Great Pyramid. Modern researchers now suspect that, in the
battle for oneupmanship, Howard-Vyse sought to overshadow his rival and
gain renewed support for his own projects with a similar but more
spectacular "discovery", by forging quarry inscriptions inside the Great
Pyramid. In other words, no firm evidence in any way connects the pyramids
of the Giza plateau to the dynastic Egyptians.
Let us briefly consider a few matters concerning the construction of the Great Pyramid; matters which clearly indicate that the builders of fourth dynasty Egypt did not have the engineering capacity to erect the Great Pyramid (we do not have the capacity even today) and that this structue was used for a purpose altogether different from mere burial.
The Great Pyramid is constructed with approximately 2,300,000 limestone
and granite blocks. Weighing between 2.5 and 50 tons each, these stone
blocks had to be quarried from the earth. Herein lies our first unsolved
problem. In the Cairo museum one can see several examples of simple copper
and bronze saws, which Egyptologists claim are like those utilized in the
cutting and shaping of the pyramid blocks. These tools present a problem.
On the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, copper and bronze have a hardness
of 3.5 to 4, while limestone has a hardness of 4 to 5 and granite of 5 to
6. The known tools would only barely cut through limestone and would be
useless with granite. No archaeological examples of iron tools are found
in early dynastic Egypt, yet even if they were, the best steels today have
a hardness of only 5.5 and thus are inefficient for cutting granite. Some
years ago Sir Flinders Petrie, one of the "fathers" of Egyptology proposed
that the pyramid blocks had been cut with long saw blades studded with
diamonds or corundum. But this idea presents problems too. The cutting of
millions of blocks would require millions of rare and expensive diamonds
and corundum, which constantly wear out and require replacement. It has
been suggested that the limestone blocks were somehow cut with solutions
of citric acid or vinegar, yet these very slow-acting agents leave the
surface of the limestone pitted and rough, unlike the beautifully smooth
surface found on the casing stones, and these agents are completely
useless for the cutting of granite. The truth is, we have no idea how the
blocks were actually quarried.
The unsolved problem of how the 2,300,000 very heavy blocks were
transported to the building site of the pyramid is even more mystifying.
How were the blocks taken to the nearly 500- foot height of the pryamids'
summit? A Danish civil engineer, P. Garde-Hanson, has calculated that a
ramp built all the way to the top of the pyramid would require 17.5
million cubic meters of material, this representing more than seven times
the amount of material used for the pyramid itself, and a work force of
240,000 to build it in the time allotted by Cheops' reign. But if this
enormous ramp were built, it would then require a force of more than
300,000 laborers as much as eight years to dismantle. Where would all the
ramp material have been placed, since it is not to be found anywhere near
the Great Pyramid? And what of manuevering the precisely carved blocks
into place without damaging the corners? Various lifting devices and
levers have been proposed by modern engineers (remember, no existing
dynastic records, paintings, or friezes give any clue to this mystery),
but none solve the problem of how the 50-ton blocks of the main chamber
were lifted and positioned using an area where only four to six workers
could stand, when the strength of at least 2000 would be needed.
Next we come to perhaps the most extraordinary problem, that of the fashioning and placement of the highly polished limestone casing stones that covered the entire pyramid. The finished pyramid contained approximately 115,000 of these stones, each weighing ten tons or more. These stones were dressed on all six of their sides, not just the side exposed to the visible surface, to tolerances of .01 inch. They are set together so closely that a thin razor blade cannot be inserted between the stones. Egyptologist Petrie expressed his astonishment of this feat by writing, "Merely to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work, but to do so with cement in the joint seems almost impossible; it is to be compared to the finest opticians' work on the scale of acres." Herodotus, visiting in the fifth century BC, reported that inscriptions of strange characters were to be found on the pyramid's casing stones. In AD 1179 the Arab historian Abd el Latif recorded that these inscriptions were so numerous that they could have filled "more than ten thousand written pages." William of Baldensal, a European visitor of the early fourteenth century, tells how the stones were covered with strange symbols arranged in careful rows. Sadly, in 1356, following an earthquake that leveled Cairo, the Arabs robbed the pyramid of its beautiful casing of stones to rebuild mosques and fortresses in the city. As the stones were cut into smaller pieces and reshaped, all traces of the ancient inscriptions were removed from them. A great library of ageless wisdom was forever lost.
Still further evidence that the dynastic Egyptians did not construct
the Great Pyramid may be found in sediments surrounding the base of the
monument, in legends regarding watermarks on the stones halfway up its
sides, and in salt incrustations found within. Silt sediments rising to
fourteen feet around the base of the pyramid contain many seashells and
fossils that have been radiocarbon-dated to be nearly twelve thousand
years old. These sediments could have been deposited in such great
quantities only by major sea flooding, an event the dynastic Egyptians
could never have recorded because they were not living in the area until
eight thousand years after the flood. This evidence alone suggests that
the three main Giza pyramids are at least twelve thousand years old. In
support of this ancient flood scenario, mysterious legends and records
tell of watermarks that were clearly visible on the limestone casing
stones of the Great Pyramid before those stones were removed by the Arabs.
These watermarks were halfway up the sides of the pyramid, or about 400
feet above the present level of the Nile River. Further, when the Great
Pyramid was first opened, incrustations of salt an inch thick were found
inside. While much of this salt is known to be natural exudation from the
stones of the pyramid, chemical analysis has shown that some of the salt
has a mineral content consistent with salt from the sea. These salt
incrustations, found at a height corresponding to the water level marks
left on the exterior, are further evidence that at some time in the
distant past the pyramid was submerged halfway up its height.
Let us turn our attention briefly to the matter of the purpose or
multiple purposes of the Great Pyramid, drawing for our discussion on both
the exact measurements made by modern scientists and the mythic legends of
the remote past. A few facts:
What does all this mean? Why did the ancient builders of the Giza
pyramids, whoever they may have been, encode so much precise mathematical,
geographic, and astronomical information into their structures? What was
the purpose of the Great Pyramid? While no authoritative answer can
presently be given to this question, two intriguing matters suggest a
direction for further inquiry and research. The first has to do with the
persistent legends that the Great Pyramid, and especially the main
chamber, were used as some sort of sacred initiation center. According to
one legend, students who had first undergone long years of preparation,
meditation and metaphysical instruction in an esoteric school (the mythic
"Hall of Records" hidden deep beneath the desert sands somewhere near the
Great Pyramid and the Sphynx) were placed in the granite coffer of the
main chamber and left alone throughout an entire night. The coffer was the
focal point of the energies gathered, concentrated, aimed, and directed at
the main chamber by virtue of the precise mathematical location,
alignment, and construction of the pyramid. These energies, considered to
be especially potent at certain precisely calculated periods when the
earth was in a particular geometric alignment with solar, lunar, and
stellar objects, were conducive to the awakening, stimulation, and
acceleration of spiritual consciousness in the suitably prepared adept.
While it is now nearly impossible to spend an evening alone in the coffer
of the main chamber, it is interesting to read the reports of those
persons who have done so in the past. Mention will be made of experiences
both terribly frightening (perhaps because of the lack of any appropriate
training on the part of the experimenter) and also deeply peaceful, even
spiritually illuminating. Napolean himself spent a night alone in the
chamber. Emerging pale and dazed, he would not speak of his powerful
experiences, only saying, "You would not believe me if I told you."
A second matter needing further inquiry from the scientific community studying the Great Pyramid - and one that might help explain the subject just discussed - concerns the matter of unexplained energetic anomalies frequently noticed and recorded in the main chamber.
In the 1920s, a Frenchman named Antoine Bovis made the surprising
discovery that, despite the heat and high humidity of the main chamber,
the dead bodies of animals left in the chamber did not decay but
completely dehydrated. Thinking that there might be some relationship
between this phenomena and the position of the main chamber in the
pyramid, Bovis constructed a small-scale model of the pyramid, oriented it
to the same direction as the Great Pyramid, and placed the body of a dead
cat at the approximate level of the main chamber. The result was the same.
As he had observed in the Great Pyramid, the cat's body did not decay. In
the 1960s, researchers in Czechoslovakia and the U.S., conducting limited
studies of the geometry of the pyramid, repeated this experiment with the
same results. They also found that the form of the pyramid somehow
mysteriously kept foods preserved without spoiling, sharpened dull razor
blades, induced plants to germinate and grow more quickly, and hastened
the healing of animals' wounds. Other scientists, in consideration of the
high quartz content of the granite blocks in the main chamber and the
incredible pressures those blocks are subjected to, theorized that the
main chamber may have been the focal point of a powerful piezoelectric
field; magnetometer measurements inside the chamber indeed showed higher
levels than the normal background geomagnetic field.
Although much research remains to be done in these areas, legend,
archaeology, mathematics, and earth sciences seem to indicate that the
Great Pyramid was a monumental device for gathering, amplifying, and
focusing a mysterious energy field for the spiritual benefit of human
beings. We do not know exactly how the pyramid and its main chamber were
used, and the geometric structure of the pyramid has been subtley altered
by the removal of the casing stones and the cap-stone. None-the-less, the
Great Pyramid of the Giza plateau still emanates great power as a
transformational power place. It has done so for uncounted thousands of
years and seems destined to continue for ages to come.
From: email@example.com (Jason Hammitt)
Have you read Richard Hoagland's theories of the great pyramid and its tie-ins to Mars? Well he claims to have discovered similar structures on Mars which might lead one with a wild imagination to create all sorts of scenarios that could explain the mysteries of the pyramids. As incredible as it sounds, suppose that a long time ago there was a dying planet in our solar system, a planet which had a race of people advanced enough to leave it and migrate to another world. Suppose that world that they migrated to was Earth. I know it seems like the stuff of science fiction, but if one can let the imagination roam it would explain a great many things. Suppose they came to earth and found it inhabited by apes and giant reptiles....Being that they were masters of genetics, they mixed their own DNA with the earth creatures most resembling themselves in an effort to create a more suitable body that would be able to live in the Earth climate without artificial assistance. They created a hybrid of themselvs, in other words, a way to continue their species in this new world. With the same anti-gravidic technology used to fly their interplanetary ships they moved the huge stones from the quaries and put them accurately in place, the creation of the great pyramid would serve several puposes...fist, it could be seen visually from space with the lighter colored casing stones in place. Secondly because of its enormous weight and structural material it vibrated at the same frequency as the earth itself, like a giant tuning fork picking up resonant frequencies, perhaps serving as a focal point of earth energy acting like a giant homing beacon for interplanetary craft. Perhaps its function may be similar to what Nikola Tesla was attempting to do with his Wardenclyffe and Colorado Springs experiments with radiated energy. Perhaps these pyramids served as natural ether pumps to tap into and focus the earth store of energy ...the earth acting in this case like a huge capacitor, an unlimited potential energy for which to tap. As outlandish as these type theories would seem...they do go a long way toward explaing some of the great mysteries of our origins. Perhaps "we" are the "visitors" the long lost descendents of those ancient builders. We might have somehow lost our collective memory but maybe we hold the answers we seek within ourselves...within the very fabric of our own DNA.
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Explorer-anthropologist Martin Gray has spent 18 years as a wandering pilgrim visiting, studying and photographing over 1000 sacred sites in 80 countries around the world. To share his insights and photographs with a wide audience, Martin lectures at museums, universities and conferences throughout the US, South America and Europe. Based upon extensive scholarly research and his own mystical experiences at the sacred sites, Martin offers a fascinating discussion of the mythology and anthropology of pilgrimage places and a radical explanation of the miraculous phenomena that occurs at the sites. To see hundreds of Martin’s photographs and study his theories of sacred sites and earth magic, look at his extensive and beautiful web site, WWW.SACREDSITES.COM.
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Martin Gray is an anthropologist and photographer specializing in the study of sacred sites and pilgrimage traditions around the world. Traveling as a pilgrim, Martin spent twenty years, visiting and photographing over 1000 sacred sites in eighty countries.
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