A few more considerations
1. A scientist that did detect vitrification was late prof.
Watkins. He said:
The rock surfaces on Inca stones are similar to those that have been
thermally disaggregated. Indeed, some of the slick surfaces on the Inca
building stones are glazed, so it becomes apparent that the Incas must have
used thermal disaggregation.
2. Metal Clamps and T-grooves.
The use of Metal Clamps in T-Grooves happened in Tiahuanaco, Ollantaytambo,
Koricancha and the site of Yuroc Rumi, Vilcabamba. Also in Egypt the use of
clamps was found. The grooves appear to be limited to the most monumental
structures, as the size of the blocks in which they were used is huge. At the
site of Pumapunku, Tiahuanaco, a number of grooves still can be observed.
Some say the metal of these clamps is from a very special alley, others say
it is of a composition that is perfectly normal for the bronze technology of
the Tiahuanaco culture.
The interpretation of the use.
Why would the builders use or need a small metal clamp to hold large stone
blocks in place? This is the reason that some consider that the clamps were for
ceremonial use, as the effect for construction use would be very limitted,
namely the size of the blocks is too big compared with the size of the
T-grooves and clamps. See:
Alfredo Gamarra said that the perfect fitting blocks do so because they
were moldable on the moment of construction. If Alfredo was right, one can
imagine that especially bigger blocks were more difficult to treat, as the
weight of the clay-like block would have given problems to keep them in place,
and the clay could have had the tendency to deform. The clamps would have
served for keeping the blocks together, so they would harden out in the right
position. The observation that the groove has been polished is important here.
The same can be observed on the borders of the stones of the perfect fitting
walls. Some technology with heat was applied to give form and strength to the
construction. This means the shine is not because of polishing, but would be
vitrification. The same counts for the T-Grooves. From the picture of the
stoneblock with the T-groove in Ollantaytambo, it can be observed that also a
bigger part of the stone is vitrified, not only the part of the groove.
Is this conclusion of vitrified and moldable stones the same as with the
theory of the geopolymeres of the pyramids in Egypt?
No, this is not the same as where the Frenchman
Joseph Davidovits is speaking
about. He indicates that stones of the great pyramid were made out of cement,
or geopolymeres. See:
http://www.davidovits.info/category/english . But there are interesting
Alfredo Gamarra's ideas:
- Stone on the moment of construction was soft and moldable.
- Because of this the stones fit perfectly.
But the differences are:
- The construction style of perfect fitting stones has been done with
different types of stone, what means that for every type of stone there
should have been a formula for the making of cement. Something that is much
more complicated, so less probable as an explanation.
- The use of cement is not completely logical; why has each stone another
form and size? More logical it would have been to use a mold and in this way
a standard size of stone, to make the construction- work easier.
The proposal of
Alfredo Gamarra means that every stone can be unique in size
and form, but that at the same time, without any complications, they fit
perfectly together. Making a mold for each stone would have made the work
unnecessarily more laborous and more complicated.
Vitrification is everywhere, see more pictures below and the
video in our chapter 'Vitrified Stone', a courtesy from the
As stated before, vitrification is to be seen in all the Inca vestiges. See
the pictures on the right and the video below. The video is a courtesy, so you
can get an impression of our video 'The
Cosmogony of the 3 worlds' and the
interesting and fascinating information and images that you can expect in this
documentary. On the
DVD this chapter is to be seen in full DVD quality of
For your information: in this example chapter of the
DVD, two terms are
mentioned that might be unknown to you:
- The Hanan Pacha time period. This is a reference to the first orbit with
human life. A time with less gravity, when the earth was closer to the sun.
Speaking about the 'Sacred Rocks' of the first style, we refer to this
period. The constructions were made in the rocks themselves, those rocks that
nowadays form the base of many ancient vestiges. Especially those of the
Inca's, but also in Egypt and other places. See 'Other
- The Uran Pacha time period. This is the next period, in which the style
of perfect fitting walls was made. This period was before our present period.
In both periods, vitrification was used, which can be observed on the video:
this is one of the chapters.
Which other chapters are to be seen on the DVD, you can read here:
The Cosmogony of the 3 worlds.
The archaeological proofs on a
explaining the ancient mysteries of the Inca vestiges.
Sacsayhuaman is the famous Inca fortress just above Cusco. But
what most people only get to see of it are the walls with giant
stones. The Sacsayhuaman archaeological parque is much bigger and
if you know where to go and how to look, you will be able to find
many surprising places. For example the X zone, named so because
Jesús Gamarra started to use this name, the 'rodaderos', a kind of
natural fairground slide, the big rock named 'la Chincana Grande',
where they say tunnels start, towards for example Koricancha. For
now, as part of the vitrification section, below we will show some
vritrifed stones that can be found between the rodaderos and the
Vitrified rocks in Sacsayhuaman.
Near the Throne of the Inca
and the rodaderos.
rough rock with just a very small vitrified part on it, as if
they passed an iron.
Notice the different colour of the smooth and vitrified part.
With the right light, a tremendous reflection can be observed
on this vitrified piece of rock.
The same rock, although the upper part does not reflect as no
light falls on it, it is still
to observe the smoothness, and the look as if it has been melted
Here the layer can be observed, giving a strong reflection were
it is still on the stone.
Another example of some vitrified stones in Sacsayhuaman, one
from a protected rock and the second case on the video is a small
tunnel, which is completely vitrified inside: link:
A very especial effect we noticed when we were editing a video
that we recorded of the monument called 'the Inca Throne' in
Sacsayhuaman. It was only after we checked the tape at home that
we realized that we captured this rainbow effect with our lens. It
might have to do with the vitrified state of this famous part of
Sacsayhuaman, and that the light was refracted because of that.
See the upper border of the monument. link:
More Sacsayhuaman Photos >>
Ollantaytambo is an excellent site in the Sacred
Valley of the Incas, here all kinds of vitrified and moulded
stones can be observed.
The famous perfect fit, there is refection, smooth parts
and a different colour to be observed.especially at the borders.
More Photos by Jan Peter de Jong >>
The Moon Temple
The moontemple is located in the Sacsayhuaman archaeological
parque. Very strange structures can be found here, including some
caves, a type of altar, and heavily shining surfaces (vitrified
rock) and pieces of the rock that look like they cut big parts out
of the mountain as if it was a giant cheese. A snake form in the
rock can be found too.
Vitrified borders on the wall inside the
This altar looks as if a layer with a
metallic sheen once covered it.
This snake form made in the wall of the cave
also shows the 'shine',
although the surface is very irregular. ©
The altar inside the cave, still used for offerings to the 'Pacha
Another picture of the altar, which shows the melted look.
This rock is strongly vitrified with a very
smooth and reflecting surface, inside of the cave.
Kenko is close to Cusco and practically part of the
Sacsayhuaman archaeological parque. It has one big rock with a lot
of structures made in it. Also there are some features inside this
rock with altars, in a sort of cave. Spectaculary vitrifed stones
can be observed here, with the moulded look and with a layer that
can be observed clearly.
Protected by a rock 'roof', much of the vitrified layer is
still to be seen,
as erosion had not much chance. ©
This rock or altar is spectaculary vitrified.
Loreto street is a small street leaving from the Plaza de Armas,
the central square in the centre of Cusco. It should be a tipical
example of Inca masonry if orthodox archaeology is to be believed.
But a closer analisis can show how much difference there is
between the walls on both sides of the streets. On one side the
wall is the style of the Inca's according to
definition; there are no perfect fits and the stones were treated
with hammer and chisel. The other side shows us a wall with
perfect fitting stoneblocks and moulded and vitrified stones. This
can be observed by day, and by night with the help of the street
A small vitrified part on a stoneblock. The borders of these
stones are all vitrified also.
On this picture the vitrified borders can be seen clearly.
The famous Inca temple of the sun in the centre of Cusco. There
is a museum that has many strange rocks to show us. We got special
permission to take pictures and video. That is to be seen on our
DVD . Here we present some vitrified stones, that also here can be
A vitrified stoneblock in a wall inside of Koricancha.
Chinchero is a beautiful village. There is also a great
vestige, with all the characteristics of the other vestiges in and
near Cusco. It's just off the road that goes from Cusco to the
Sacred Valley, at only 30 kilometres from Cusco.
A vitrified and moulded stoneblock, Plaza de
The archaeological proofs on a
explaining the ancient mysteries of the Inca vestiges.
This article is presented with permission.
Construction Theories: Part 1 >>