You are here: science mysteries  fifth stage of creation

Science Mysteries

The Big Bang

  Nuclear Energy
  Asteroid Belt
  Pole Shifting
  Human Genome
Life after Death
  Natural Healing
  Spirit, Mind & Body
  Dating our Past
Ancient Science
Science Links
Crop Circles
Fibonacci in Nature

The Fifth Stage
of Creation

Science Mysteries

Asteroid Belt Exploded Planet Bode's Law Bibliography Related Links


The Fifth Stage of Creation

Moons, Comets, Meteors, Asteroids and the Rings of Matter around the gas planets

  2004 by Rich Anders

In the Big Bang the creation of matter begins. It undergoes four stages of creation until it reaches the formation of planets.

  • The Big Bang is the first act of creation. In a one time creational explosion hydrogen and to a lesser degree helium are created and constitute the primal matter from which all other matter evolves.
  • Quasars are the beginning of galaxy formation and constitute the second stage of creation. In continuous creation the Quasars produce new hydrogen and helium, which is mixed with the hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang and galaxies develop. Stars are formed and the process towards higher evolution of matter is under way.
  • The third stage of creation is reached with the explosions of stars, which create more highly evolved matter. The explosions of smaller stars create elements up to the density of iron. The explosions of big stars, called supernovae, create the heavy elements and additional hydrogen and helium.
  • Dust from exploded stars and primal matter, hydrogen and helium, constitute the material from which planets form. Centers of gravity, which attract dust and primal matter, develop around one or several stars and planetary systems come into existence. This is the fourth stage of creation.

Aggregating dust particles and gas become concentrated in local centers of gravity. This results in the formation of planets and, possibly, of moons in orbit around planets. Heat and pressure in the interior of these centers of gravity fuse particles into matter, as we know it. The most common heavy element, iron, becomes the core of planets. Volcanic activity and lava flows create the crust and bring gases to the surface.

Once matter on the surface has formed a crust an atmosphere is created. On some planets over very lengthy periods of time a variety of life forms develop. Evolution leads some of such forms to reach the level of intelligence. (1)



There are two kinds of moons. The first kind evolves in parallel with a planet it orbits. The mass of such a moon is big enough to experience the same kind of the evolution of matter as a planet. If the planet explodes the orbital lock is lifted and such a moon can get an orbit of its own appearing to be a small planet. This is the case with Mars. It started as a moon of a huge planet, which exploded. The remnants of this planet are the asteroids, the moons, the meteors, the comets and the rings of matter around the gas planets.

Mars provides a wealth of information telling of a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions. Its Southern Hemisphere has a feature called the Line of Dichotomy at about 35 degrees from the equator. From there to the South Pole the surface of Mars on average is 30 kilometers higher than the northern half of Mars. This surface is so heavily cratered that many craters overlap. In contrast, the north is mostly flat and has very few craters.

Between the line of Dichotomy and the South Pole the surface of Mars consists mainly of matter found in the mantle and in the core of planets, iron and sulfur. Oxidation of this abundant iron ore is the cause of the red color of the Mars landscape. Additionally, olivine, another type of matter typically existing in the interior of planets, is found in abundance to the south of the Line of Dichotomy. It is clear that this type of matter and this kind of cratering has been produced by the explosion of a relatively near by planet.

Jupiter's moon Io and Mars have something in common. They both have uplifts - bulges - 180 degrees apart around the longitudinal circumference of the planet. These were formed through gravitational influences coming from the huge companion planet. Another feature of Mars confirming the influence of an exceedingly strong gravitational pull is the Valles Marineris, a trough extending one quarter of its circumference. As the moon Mars orbited the planet water rushed through this valley forth and back in response to the planet's gravitational pull. It's high speed and its scrubbing action radically deepened the valley to a depth of about 7 kilometers, the deepest canyon in the Solar System.

There is much more to be said about this fascinating situation but this, by far, would exceed the scope of this article. Anyone interested to read in depth about the tidal theory of Mars should read the brilliantly written Abstract presented by Richard C. Hoagland, Principal Investigator of the Enterprise Mission, and by Michael Bara, Executive Director, Formal Action Committee on Extraterrestrial Studies. The Study is called "A new model of Mars as a former captured satellite: Bi-Modal distribution of key features due to ancient tidal stress". A plethora of references are added to the Abstract. (2)

The second kind of moon originates in the destruction of the planet it orbits. This might happen because of a catastrophic collision with another cosmic body or as the result of a run-away explosion of a super volcano. Fact is, we don't know enough to even theorize about such an event. We just know that such an event is the end of all life on a planet. It is the fifth stage of creation, which produces nothing but lifeless matter without any chance of further evolution.

When a planet's matter is driven apart by the force of an explosion moons, meteors, asteroids, comets and rings of matter around other planets come into existence. These new cosmic bodies are as divers as the planet's matter they originated from. This kind of moons will not evolve any further because they are not big enough to provide the heat and the pressure necessary to start another process of evolution.

From the example of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn we know that depending on the origin of their matter in the exploded planet these moons vary widely in their composition and sometimes in shape. Jupiter's moon Amalthea is the best proof of a moon, which originated from the crust of a planet. Basically it is a huge rock, which probably is a former mountain range. It is long, irregular in shape and clearly shows that it has not formed from dust matter in space, which would have resulted in a sphere. Also, its matter could not have formed in space because the moon is not big enough to provide the heat and the pressure needed for matter to evolve from dust produced in a nova or supernova explosion.

Jupiter's moon Europa is a huge ball of ice. It only could have originated from a former ocean of the exploded planet. Water cannot form in space all by itself.

Jupiter's moon Callisto is a mixture of rock and water. Even if Callisto were big enough to provide the pressure and heat needed for the evolution of matter its ratio of rocks and water could not have been created in space. Clearly, Callisto is a former shoreline, which took rocks and water into space.

Jupiter's moon Io and Saturn's moon Titan are similar in composition. Obviously, they originated from the mantle and core of the exploded planet and, therefore they both have a lot of volcanic activity. Io's gravity is too weak to allow the formation of an atmosphere from the gases released in volcanic eruptions. Titan's gravity is strong enough to keep the gases emitted by volcanic activity from escaping into space and over time an atmosphere developed.

We could go on discussing each moon but this would be a repetitive task. The above samples clearly show that the moons from the fifth stage of creation originated in the explosion of a planet and, therefore, are composed of evolved matter with no further evolutionary potential.


Asteroids, rings of matter, and meteors

have the same composition, which can be divided in three main categories: iron from the core of a planet, igneous rocks and rocks from the crust of a planet. The asteroids occupy the plane where the exploded planet orbited. The rings of matter exist in the equatorial planes of gas planets and meteors move in irregular orbits of their own through the Solar System. (3)

Meteors can be lone, erratic wanderers or they come in so-called meteor showers. Of these the "Near Earth Orbit" class of meteors are the ones of most interest to us. There are three main showers called the Leonids, the Amor and the Apollo showers. Of these more than 500 meteors of the Apollo group with a diameter of more than 1 kilometer have been catalogued to date and it is estimated that there are more than 1000 such meteors in Earth orbit crossing trajectories.



can be large balls of pure water ice or consist of water ice with inclusions of rocks, sand and soil depending on the points of origin in an ocean or in an ocean near a coastline. Comets like meteors move through the Solar System in irregular orbits. As they approach the Sun water ice evaporates and forms the comet's tail, which always points away from the Sun regardless of its trajectory. If there is soil and sand from of a coastline present a comet will display two tails, as water vapor and soil/sand are influenced differently by the solar wind.

Every time a comet approaches the Sun it loses part of its matter. If it consists purely of water ice it eventually will completely disintegrate and cease to exist. If the comet consists of water ice and a central rock the water ice eventually will evaporate and the comet turns into a meteor.

In ancient times comets and meteors were thought to be harbingers of doom and people thought that they would bring death and destruction. The planet moving through the tail of a comet has been reported to bring illness, poisoning of crops and foul water. Only recently science found out that the ancients were not superstitious. They just described the terrible experiences the encounters with such harbingers of doom were. (4)


Cataclysmic events

with the potential of horrendous loss of life and property occur when meteors or comets strike this planet. Science assumes that meteors in sizes up to 10 meters evaporate in the atmosphere without doing any harm. Meteors in sizes between 10 and 300 meters are thought to explode upon entry in the Earth atmosphere and cause widespread damage. Meteors with diameters of more than 300 meters will hit the Earth and wreak havoc on life land. (5)

Meteor strikes on land produce very different effects than meteors plunging into an ocean. When a meteor hits land most of the energy spent will create a huge crater and the force of the ensuing explosion will inject a tremendous amount of dust into the atmosphere. This dust will circle the globe for years and produce an effect like the so-called nuclear winter expected after many massive nuclear explosions. The impact will produce violent earthquakes all over the globe and many volcanoes will erupt increasing the dust in the atmosphere further with a considerable amount of more dust. Temperatures will drop considerably worldwide.

A meteor of about 1 km in diameter is estimated to explode with the energy of approximately 1 million hydrogen bombs of 1 megaton. Total destruction through heat and pressure waves would extend over hundreds of kilometers depending on the meteor's density and on the angle and speed of the impact. Devastation could be continent wide.

If a meteor with a diameter of 10 km or more hits land the released energy would be in the range of a billion hydrogen bombs of one megaton or more. At 2000 km from the point of impact the wind velocity is estimated to still be 2400 km/h and the increase in air temperature is estimated at close to 500 degree Celsius. At 10.000 km the respective values are estimated to be 100 k/h winds and a raise in temperature of 30 degrees Celsius lasting for 14 hours. Total destruction could encompass the entire hemisphere where the meteor hit.

Most of this planet's surface is covered by water. The probability for a hit in an ocean is approximately 3:1. Aside from a hit on a continental shelf where the earth crust is estimated at 35 km a hit in an ocean where the crust is only about 2.5 km produces very different effects than a hit on land. A huge amount of water is ejected into the atmosphere, which will rain out for weeks after the impact producing the kind of rain reported in the Bible and the epic of Gilgamesh.

Even a small impact in an ocean will produce gigantic waves, which will circle the entire globe. A big impact can create waves up to a mile high, which carry utter devastation far into continents the world over. The ocean floor will be penetrated and for weeks after the cataclysm lava will flow out increasing temperatures worldwide. This scenario allows for only a comparatively moderate amount of dust to be injected into the atmosphere. In both cases the tilt of the Earth axis, reversal of polarity resulting in a reversal of the Earth's rotation and in case of a very big hit even a change in orbit can ensue.

Emilio Spedicato of the University of Bergamo in Italy wrote an excellent abstract, which contains much very detailed information as well as an abundance of further references dealing with this topic. (4)

The fossil record clearly shows 5 major extinctions after which life had to evolve anew under different circumstances. The last big extinction ended the era of the dinosaurs 67 million years ago. The culprit was a meteor of approximately 15 km in diameter, which hit the planet in the area of the Yucatan peninsula forming the Chicxulub crater. (6)

More localized events end civilizations like the hit, which ended the Sumerian epoch in Mesopotamia around 2100 BC. At the same time the era of the Old Kingdom ended in Egypt, Crete was destroyed and there are craters elsewhere dating back to this time like one big crater in Argentina. The Australian aborigines tell of a time when fireballs fell from the sky and the air was unbearably hot. If there is indeed a timely connection between these events then it is likely that the culprit was not a meteor but a comet. (7)

Meteors are like a bomb dropped on one place. Comets bring death and destruction over very wide areas. If the core of the comet impacting the Earth is a rock then the effect is like a bomb in the center of the hit but devastation can spread over the entire globe. Chunks of rocks from the comet's halo, pieces of ice broken from the comet's core upon entry into the atmosphere and poisonous fumes affect large areas to a varying degree depending on the distribution of the cosmic missiles.

In recent years science accepted the fact that there was a connection between the demise of entire civilizations like the Sumerian and impacts by meteors or comets. Science now assumes hits on the planet in intervals, which get increasingly larger with the size of the impacting cosmic body. A number of times the planet was hit so hard that up to 90% of all species died out. But there are threats out there so huge that all life on Earth would cease if they collided with this planet. - One Amor type meteor named Ganymed is 39 km in diameter. A hit would be a global catastrophe and yet there could worse. (8)

Comets spend a very long time exposed to radiation in space. One theory has it that this causes changes in the atomic structure of the water and transforms it into "heavy" water. This essentially would make the comet a huge mass of fusion fuel. Entering the Earth atmosphere could ignite nuclear processes and an atomic bomb of unimaginable proportions would explode. This event, for sure, could destroy all life on this planet. (9)

We have two impacts in recent memory: the Tunguska event, which was the explosion of a meteor estimated at a diameter of about 160 meters, and the Peshtigo fire, which seems to have been a hit by a small comet and its accompanying rocks. Luckily, the Tunguska meteor exploded over an uninhabited area in Siberia. Had it arrived a few hours later it would have brought utter devastation in Central Europe with the possible loss of millions of lives. (10)

We have no record of a major impact since the cataclysm that destroyed the Sumerian civilization 4200 years ago. Looking at the list of recorded impacts over the last 10,000 years it is obvious that we were very lucky. But our luck can and will run out at some time.

2004 by Rich Anders


(1) Rich Anders, God's Ultimate Task,
(3) Rich Anders, The Great Mysteries,
(4) keyword SIS, Society for Interdisciplinary Studies; other links; 3, Dangers of
NEOs; Apollo objects, Atlantis and other tales. Emilio Spedicato, University of
(5) (4)
(6) keyword: chicxulub
(7) The Telegraph (UK) 11-04-2001, Robert Matthews
(8) (4)
(9) AUP, comets: Dirty Snow Bombs, Mike Johnston,
(10), March 13, 2004



Download e-Books by Rich Anders


Rocks from Space: Meteorites and Meteorite Hunters
by O. Richard Norton, Dorothy S. Norton (Illustrator), Ursula B. Marvin
Comet and Asteroid Impact Hazards on a Populated Earth: Computer Modeling
by John S. Lewis
21st Century Complete Guide to Asteroids, Comets, Near-Earth Objects, and the Risk of Earth Impact
by World Spaceflight News


The Best Astronomy Software

If looking up at the sky on a clear night has always held more than a bit of curious fascination for you, Starry Night Pro is the perfect tool for you to explore your intergalactic interests. The application is packed full of information to delight the backyard stargazer, while being powerful enough for the serious student.

View the stars from your exact location on Earth (or any other location on the planet), or travel throughout the solar system to see views not possible until now. If that's still too close to home, Starry Night can produce views from anywhere within 20,000 light-years of the solar system. With a database of over 19 million celestial objects, there is almost no limit to where you can travel. View satellites, asteroids, and comets, or continuously track their paths in orbit.

Basic information about each star, planet, or galaxy is available within the program. If you desire more in-depth reading, Starry Night Pro will link you directly to the Internet for more detailed information.

The software can also be customized to the individual tastes of each user, with the ability to add labels, guides, and constellations, as well as create your own personal settings. Keep it current by adding your own database of newly discovered celestial objects. You can even throw in customized images and Internet links.

Curious about the way the universe looked in the past or how it will look in the future? This software allows you to travel through 200,000 years of time in a matter of minutes. You can also create QuickTime movies of your adventures and send them to friends.

With almost too many features to mention, Starry Night Pro is an amazing tool for anyone with a fascination for space. It's as close as you will probably ever get to owning your own planetarium.