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What Time is it – Now? How about now?

by Arthur "Art" Ryan

While watching a show on Discovery’s Science Channel, I became aware that our Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) are subject to a different rate of time than us on Earth. It was postulated that time runs faster on the satellites. That caused me to become confused. I did not understand how that could be possible given the Special Relativity Theory which demands that time runs slower when an object is moving at a higher rate of speed. Go fast and time slows down.

So, some quick research was done and I confirmed that the rate at which time transpires on GPS orbiters are ever so slightly faster than earth-based time. This, of course, has to be regularly compensated for or our GPS System would be completely useless. At the elementary level, this may seem unimportant, and in our everyday life – as long as GPS works, we don’t care. After all, our measurement of time is a concept based on the rotation of our planet. It is divided into segments that could have been of any length and called by any name we collectively accept.

The actual time that we perceive was devised in order to standardize train schedules. Therefore, we have time zones within which the entire area uses the same time no matter the position of the sun in the sky. Which results in situations where the sun could be at its highest point above you and the time as you know it should be noon; yet, the accepted time could be 12:30, 12:45, or something similarly different. That is the perception of our concept of time.

But, a perception of a concept of time is not the subject of this article. We will be looking at a deeper idea of time that until recently, I thought was already figures out. Yet, it seems that time is another area of science that is riddled with doubts.

Normally, when I address things that just don’t seem right within dogmatic science, I would express where my doubts emanate from and offer a new idea to possibly correct the problem. This is not going to happen in this article. I have only been considering the subject for a little over a week and have not wrapped my mind around it long enough to see an alternative to the dogmatic accepted time. I will pose many questions herein that are asked without an answer from me. They are presented to illustrate my doubts and to challenge the scientific community.

The depth of the questions is potentially profound and will call into doubt many accepted theories and our basic understanding of the universe around us. Some of the questions will be provided to point out areas for further research and others will be discussed to establish doubt in other areas. Please bear with me and I think you will see the dilemma that has formed in my head. A dilemma that simple, common-sense reasoning may need help with. So, the assistance of my guest writers, non-associated scientists and scholars, and you will be eagerly accepted.

A very basic understanding of the Special Theory of Relativity has told us that time runs slow during movement. This slow-time compounds itself the faster the movement. In theory, if you travel at the speed of light – time (clocks) stop. Many Sci-Fi movies have set their plots around this supposed phenomena. “Planet of the Apes” shows space travelers awakening from stasis to find themselves back on Earth many, many years into the future. It is this proposed element within the Special Theory of Relativity dealing with time and speed of travel that allows us to enjoy the movie as something that could happen.

With the Special Theory of Relativity establishing the expectation of Time Dilation, why do we find time on a satellite to be running fast?

It was this simple thought that caused me to begin to mull the idea over. After all, when considering that the satellites used for GPS are traveling in orbit around Earth at great speed compared to the commercial jet used in the Haefle-Keating Experiment. That experiment apparently confirmed the thoughts on time/speed in Special Relativity. Yet, here we find a very different observation on our GPS satellites. A contradiction.

So, it became apparent that something was amiss and immediately things were wrought with doubt.
For instance, the reason for the increase rate at which time lapsed on satellites was attributed to distance from the Earth (mass) at which they were located. This causes one to believe that time is susceptible to gravity. This is pretty much the theory accepted today and is a very interesting thought that will be discussed further in this article.

However, the known observations do not prove that time is affected by mass or gravity. It is just as possible that Earth’s electro-magnetic field could be a causal factor. Temperature, to my knowledge, has not been ruled out as an influence and the Haefle-Keating experiment may have shown that time is subject to resistance resulting from our atmosphere. As I see it, we just don’t know and have not been looking. If we did venture into these items’ possible effects, we may find that any number of them, or others such as pressure, may change time’s rate of travel – its pulse, it you will. It is even likely that we may find that time is actually an object!!   Doesn’t that boggle the mind.

I know this - I can no longer accept the dogmatic influences of movement on time. I used to believe that time was required to simply measure movement. Without movement, there seemed to be no need for time. Now I am not so sure. It still may be true; but, it has become apparent that we don’t have enough information and we need to begin to look deeper. Here are some things that we should explore. Some may not have an effect on time. In order to know we need to rule them out.

  • It there a difference in the time deviation at greater distances from the Earth?
  • Is there a difference in the time deviation between
    orbiting and geo-stationary satellites?
  • Is there a difference in the rate of time if the satellite is
    in a counter-rotating orbit?
  • Can we determine a difference in the rate of time
    between satellites orbiting at different speeds?

These are just a probable few questions that can be readily determined now. The answer to these would go a long way in solidifying our understanding of time. But, this is far from all of the possible variables. A large number of other questions, once answered, could help rule-in or rule-out other influences.

  • What is the deviation in time on our Deep Space Probes
    in comparison to local Earth orbiting satellites?
  • What is the difference in time when on the surface of the moon?
  • Does a difference in the time deviation exist between the lunar surface and lunar orbit?
  • What is the time difference when on and/or near Mars?
  • Are there any time anomalies when near other planets, especially Venus with its dense atmosphere and large bodies like Jupiter or Saturn?
  • What effects are seen on time when nearer to the Sun?
  • Do we also see different rates of time when in close proximity to space debris, such as comets and asteroids, cosmic dust or gas, or other satellites?

The answers to these questions would help us to see the effects of gravity on time if it truly changes the rate of time. In certain situations, the effects on other things like pressure, temperature, and resistance may be speculated at. The information to start making these determinations should easily be obtained by current communications with probes, rovers, and solar satellites. We can also experiment at the Earth-bound level to answer the following questions.

  • Is there a time rate deviation at different altitudes during flight?
  • Does the weather affect the rate at which time lapses?
  • Does time’s rate change based on location on the Earth, say: on the equator, at the poles (both magnetic and rotational), or at depth beneath the sea?
  • Does a comparison of atmospheric travel differ from outer-space, even low orbit?
  • In a laboratory creating electromagnetic fields, what are the effects on time’s pulse both in attractive and repulsive fields at any number electrical power levels?
  • In a video studio, can disparities be found in the recording and Earth-bound viewing rate that may be providing us with unusual images, such as the apparent slow-mo films of people on the moon?
  • If there are disparities found on video and film from the moon, do similar anomalies exist in other recorded media at other places in our explored space?
  • Within the medical community, is it possible to change our own personal rate of time by varying moods, adrenaline, or other stimuli or depressant?

The one thing that appears to be true, thus far, is that our complete understanding of time is still elusive. At present, we do not know which factors of those mentioned above, do or do not effect time. This is unacceptable in view of the fact that much of what we understand about the laws of nature rely on measured, consistent time. For instance, the speed of light as a constant is again called into doubt by me. Here is why! Imagine a star visible from here on Earth. Its light traveling to us on a path that takes it in close proximity to the sun. Its beam of light is moving as the speed of light from the point of origin all the way to us. Well, Maybe!!

The speed of light has been set at 300,000 kilometers per second. This is a speed that has been calculated as a comparison of distance traveled during a determined timeframe. However, we have determined through our satellites that there is some sort of influence on the rate of time that is sure to be found around the sun. After all, the sun is a mass that has gravity which would manipulate the rate of time. Therefore, as the light approaches and ultimately comes to its closest proximity to the sun, the rate at which time lapses will slow down. Thus, for the light to continue at the constant speed of light that we have established, it would have to change its rate of travel from our perspective. After all, the length of travel did not change.

For the light to have transverse the set distance on its path, as it closed with the sun’s effects on time, the speed at which it traveled would have to exceed the constant, relative to us. Time relative to the light has slowed; but, to us, as an outside observer, it has remained the same.

So, with regard to the two established elements (length of travel and our observed time) as absolutes, we can assume that the rate of travel for the light accelerated as it entered the sun’s influence.

It is also safe to assume that the rate of travel decelerated as the light again left the sun’s effects. This is, again, self evident from our observations of the change in the rate of time.

To better understand my argument for a change exceeding the speed of light, further imagine that you are observing the above situation from the side. The light leaves point A (the star) and travels, at our established constant, and arrives at point C (the Earth) at the elapsed time of X.
With the sun set as point B, we can assume that the light had to achieve a speed of Y as it approached and came to its closest proximity to point B. It then had to decelerate to a speed of Z as it passed and completed the journey to point C. A definite paradox!!

Relativity of time seems to create a real problem in this scenario. On the path from point A to B and from B to C, the light may have been confined to its own constant. Yet it is clear from the outside, that if the constant was in effect for the entire trip from A to C, then there had to be a change in the speed of light along the path. Relativity fails to answer this anomaly.
This situation also allows us to further question the viability of the speed of light as a constant.
Continuing to imagine viewing the above described path of light from point A to point C, we can question the actual speed of light at an extremely small fraction of a millisecond following it departure from point A. Did the light achieve the constant instantaneously? How long is the period of acceleration? This is also important for determining the actual distance traveled based on time. We cannot reasonably determine a distance traveled if we do not know how long it took the light to accelerate to full speed.

Next, we need to look from an outside perspective at another situation where relativity appears to fail. If a space traveler were riding on Einstein’s imaginary bus, at near the speed of light and time has slowed in their isolated world to the point that prevents them from walking forward within the spacecraft and exceed the speed of light, what happens if that traveler were to shine a flashlight towards the front of the craft. Or, what if the spacecraft had headlights that were turned on? Science says that the momentum cannot be added to the speed of light. The offer an example that displays a bike rider throwing a ball compared to the bike’s headlight being on.
They then claim that proves their point. Nice graphics, but, I wonder how they can even say this is proof – it is speculation. The fastest speed that we can travel now is only a miniscule fraction of the speed of light and the addition of that momentum cannot be proven one way or the other. Granted, I am also speculating, but, I ask which thought makes more sense to you?

Let’s return to the immediate topic. From the perspective of the traveler, things could be set to obey the constant limitation; yet, from the outside observer, who may be stationary observing the craft circling overhead, the light emitted from the headlights would be slowed down considerably. The headlights would be visible and, if the craft were (hypothetically) traveling only five miles per hour (mph) short of the established speed limit, then the emitted light would appear to be only traveling 5 mph from us as the outside observer. At that slow speed, even more observations of the light could be feasible. The particles/waves may even be visible. However, this is also a paradox that makes the constant doubtful.

On October 14, 1947, Capt. Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager piloted the rocket-powered Bell X-1 to Mach 1.06, destroying the myth of the "sound barrier." The NACA used the X-1 to study the dangerous problem of air compressibility and powerful shock wave formation during transonic flight. Credit: Getty Images

This harkens back to a time before Chuck Yeager exceeded the sound barrier. Then, science believed that the sound barrier could not be broken. Thus, the word “barrier” was used to describe it. Yet, Yeager not only broke that limit; his voice was able to leave his mouth and reach the microphone in his gear to radio back that was in control and alright. Based on that comparison, it becomes possible that the light emitted from our spacecraft’s headlights would travel at the speed of light away from the craft. From the perspective of the outside observer, the light would be traveling at nearly twice the speed of light.

Now, imagine two spacecrafts converging on each other. Their headlights are on and pointed towards each other. If you can imagine this, can you tell the readers and I, at what the speed the lights collide? Hmm!!

From these described scenarios, it becomes possible that the speed of light is not a constant. It further becomes possible that there is a Grand Universal Time. A rate of time that is completely free of all possible influences; let’s say a point located between three galaxies, in the roughly triangular shaped area free of any influence from any one of the three galaxies. For the sake of understanding this zone of no influence, envision three equally sized and powerful galaxies located on the same plane. Each with their edges located as close to each other as possible without effecting the others. There then becomes and influence-free zone, where time would be able to run at its maximum rate. Given the still possible effects that are created by speed of travel, we would need to imagine a stationary object located there. One such an object in that zone, would time run at an infinite rate or would it lapse at a speed that is greater than in other areas and beg to be calculated and would that rate become our new Constant, maybe even pushing itself into the equation of E=MC2.

Any of these is possible and, of course, probably impossible for us to determine, given our current technology. However, we can safely determine that there, theoretically, has to be a top speed at which time lapses. An absolute speed limit that is understood; even if, we cannot influence it ourselves. Of course, the term constant has not been attached to that speed limit due to the described known and/or possible influences. And, even if time is not the element that should be included in Einstein’s famous equation, we can now clearly see that the speed of light as a constant is, at best, a localized matter.

In other words, the amount of energy that can be released from an atom is different here (on Earth) than on the moon and, further, less on those orbs than at any point between the same. And, this energy potential fluctuation from outside influences would be realized no matter where the energy is released. To clarify, the potential for energy released would be far greater in our imaginary space between three galaxies then it would be if the release took place at or near the center of any galaxy and somewhere in between those points we would find an energy potential similar to that we see here on Earth.

Now that I have called the theory of relativity into question, you are left wondering if we should really care – its close enough. To that I would say that - the limitations we have set have probably already prevented us from advancements and we should immediately remove these barriers. It is quite possible that a controlled manipulation of time could be the key to Intergalactic travel.

As we work towards that possible ends, we still have more questions that should be asked and answered.

  • If there is a Grand Universal Time, at what rate does it lapse?
  • Does that maximum coincide with the speed of light?
  • Is that rate of time an actual speed limit or can time be exceeded in a form of hypertime?
  • Is there a separation point from mass where time’s deviation becomes neutralized and remains constant?
  • Is there a speed of travel that overcomes the effects of separation from mass?
  • Does resistance, if an influence, eventually overcome the effects of mass separation?

Scientists have been heard to say that we do not completely understand time. With all of the above still in question, it becomes apparent that is true. Now is the time to correct our lack of knowledge. Much of what has been addressed herein is easily accomplished, given the resources. These doubts, questions, and suggestions may not give us a complete understanding of time; but it would be a good start. Will anyone step up?

Copyright Arthur Ryan 2010
Presented with permission of the author

About the Author

Arthur “Art” Ryan is an independent researcher and author, who is a full-time employee supporting a major railroad and a small business owner of a process engineering consulting company, that enjoys all manner of things science. He is a baseball and football fan, who values his privacy and therefore writes under a pseudonym.

His book concerning Earth Changes is called “Are We Worth Our Salt?” which can be purchased through Lulu by visiting http://stores.lulu.com/arthurryan or Amazon and may be procured at you local Barnes and Noble store.

Art accepts constructive criticism about his ideas and welcomes evidence that support or dispute his thoughts. Questions and comments can be addressed to Art through his official website www.sciencedoubts.com

At his site, Art has opened a controlled, closed forum where intellectuals, professionals, academics, and aspiring amateurs can express their thoughts, findings, and alternate theories under pseudonyms; thereby avoiding possible damage to their careers or loss of existing funding. This site is to be driven by its users and will grow to fit the need. Those interested in writing on Science Doubt are invited to review the “Outstanding Questions” and “News Articles” sections for topic ideas or to contact the editor about your own.

Are We Worth Our Salt?

Have you ever wondered what is behind some of the World's mysteries? Do you ponder Earth changes and natural climate swings? If so, this is a book for you. Addressed herein is a primary thought that when first published by another author "electrified" Albert Einstein.
Yet, a cause for the theory was not previously given. This book will show the process steps needed to bring it to culmination. A cause and effect approach will be brought into play to solve this dramatic puzzle. Our Civilization is on the line and it requires your assistance to save it. Are you up to the challenge?

Also available here:
ISBN 978-0-6152-1270-8
ID: 2469512

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